Before pouring concrete, you must prepare your site and plan the wall location. The best way to prepare your area for a concrete retaining wall is to remove any vegetation, grass, and other material that will affect the wall. In case the area does not have enough vegetation, you can install weepholes to prevent water from leaking through. Before pouring concrete, you should make sure to follow all guidelines and safety measures, including using protective gear.
Common materials used to make concrete forms
Form concrete walls are constructed as foundations or retaining walls. Most commonly, concrete forms are made of steel, aluminum, or plywood. Steel forms are more common for commercial applications. Aluminum forms are lighter and can be easily transported. They are also available in a variety of shapes, including a stone pattern. Decorative concrete surfaces often take the shape of rocks and other materials, such as glass or tile.
Other common materials used to create concrete forms are plywood and fiberglass, which are often reused for other construction projects. Steel forms are also commonly used in heavy civil construction, and are typically made from steel plates held together with fasteners or clamps. Steel forms are more expensive than timber, but are stronger and can be reused. Regardless of the material used, the formwork must be properly constructed to ensure durability.
Wood gives off a traditional rustic vibe. Its familiar grain and texture appeal to homeowners who value aesthetics. Additionally, wood blends well with plants and the earth. Wood also offers lightweight ease of handling, making it an ideal choice for retaining walls. While concrete is a better option for more complicated projects, stone can be more expensive. This is why many homeowners choose natural stone for retaining walls.
A retaining wall’s structural strength is determined by its design. A good design should consider the lateral earth pressures, such as base sliding and overturning. Once the base is established, a stem is constructed. Depending on the type of retaining wall you have, you may have to add steel reinforcement to the wall for additional strength. A concrete retaining wall will have multiple layers of reinforcement, and a solid structure will last for many decades.
Methods of pouring a concrete retaining wall
Poured concrete walls are common in commercial settings. They can be quite large and require expert knowledge to install. Residential retaining walls are typically smaller and more straightforward. A concrete retaining wall can be constructed with either of the following methods. If you’re not sure what method to use, take a look at an existing retaining wall for an idea. Depending on your needs, one of these methods may be the best option for you.
To properly install a concrete retaining wall, you’ll need to pour a footing. This is a big piece of concrete with square edges that is buried beneath the ground. Most footings are rectangular in shape. Footings are usually 1 foot wide and 2 feet deep, but the exact dimensions will vary depending on the size of the wall, its height, and the conditions of the surrounding soil. Some footings have a key below them, which helps stabilize the footing.
The next step is to fill the space behind the retaining wall with gravel or sand. The soil behind the wall absorbs water, so when it becomes saturated, it swells. This puts pressure on the back of the wall. In contrast, gravel and sand will not absorb water. Therefore, less pressure will apply to it, minimizing the chances of cracking. If the concrete retaining wall is not constructed properly, it will slide across the slab.
However, fine poured concrete walls are difficult to install. Woody’s Custom Landscaping, based in rainy Vancouver, Washington, does not recommend this method. It can be difficult to repair and can fail altogether, requiring an entire replacement. Furthermore, fine poured concrete walls may crack and can’t be repaired. Nevertheless, they’re growing in popularity in temperate climate enclaves like southern California, where the soil is generally warm and sunny.
Footings that extend outward from the face of the wall can cause drainage problems
One solution is to place a flexible drain pipe on top of the footing. This gives the drain minimal margin for error when loaded, and it also avoids low spots. However, you must ensure that the drain pipe is not higher than the interior slab. If you place it higher, it may not control the rising ground water table as well. Hence, you may have to raise the elevation of the slab.
In case the footings extend out from the face of the wall, you can install an interior drain pipe to catch surface water. You can connect the drain pipe to a sump basket. The interior drain pipe should terminate in a sand box to prevent flooding. When installing a footing drain, make sure it is installed outside the wall at a 60-degree angle from the footing.
Building foundations should be placed on a slope of at least one unit vertical to three units horizontal. A qualified engineer should prepare the foundation plans. A slope of one unit vertical to three units horizontal must be avoided. When installing a foundation, it is important to follow all guidelines. The foundation plans must be accurate to avoid costly repairs and complications later on. However, footings that extend out from the face of the wall are not recommended.
Weep holes are necessary in all structures used to retain soil mass. They drain water from behind the wall and help relieve hydrostatic pressure. Weep holes are typically located on the bottom side of a retaining wall to prevent water from lodging in the form and increasing the structure’s hydrostatic pressure. Weep holes can also act as drainage spaces and air louvers. Therefore, weep holes are essential for any structure used to retain soil mass.
Concrete weep holes are important for retaining walls. These holes allow water to drain from the wall while preventing rodents from entering the wall. A well-designed weep hole reduces water pressure, allowing the structure to be lighter and more sturdy. When installing weep holes, be sure to place them at least 450mm apart. Weep holes should be spaced approximately 450mm apart, or thereabouts.
In addition to providing drainage for the retaining wall, weep holes serve an additional function. When constructing a concrete retaining wall, weep holes should be at least four inches in diameter. A perforated drainage line will prevent water from clogging up the weephole, which may result in the loss of backfill and resulting caving in the wall. For larger walls, weep holes should be positioned every three to four feet.
The concrete footing should contain a toe and a heel, and the footing should be placed in the center of the footing. The heel of the footing should be at the front side and the toe should extend toward the back side of the wall. This way, water will drain from the back of the wall, which supports the wall. Remember that drainage is critical in retaining walls. Without proper drainage, the wall will fail.
When building a retaining wall, using concrete form liners is the best way to create an attractive, sturdy surface. They can be bought ready-made or customized. Some companies manufacture plastic or elastomeric liners, and you can also order custom liners. For a more customized look, you can choose to have a design or logo created. You can also use a combination of the two.
If you’re constructing a wall for a natural area, a liner made of EPS or polystyrene is a great option. These liners are versatile and can be cut to any size and shape. They can also be precast or poured-in-place. EPS form liners must be sturdy enough to resist high compression to ensure proper stability. In addition, they can be secured using a patented attaching system.
When applying concrete form liners, you should ensure that they are free of contaminants and do not contain petroleum-based materials. Reactive releases, such as those made from elastomeric material, work well. Petroleum-based release agents can destroy plastic or elastomeric form liners. Also, do not use solvents to clean forms; use a neutral cleaner and make sure the surface is dry.
If you use plastic form liners, keep in mind that they cost about $1.50 to $7 per square foot, and you may need to purchase several. They come in four-foot by eight-foot and 10-foot sections, and weigh between five and thirty pounds each. When they’re first used, they will adhere to the concrete, but will come off with subsequent uses. So, if you’re looking for a low-cost option for your retaining wall, don’t forget to check the plastic form liners online